The Jaded Jedi

Journal and General Musings

What is the point of Pride?


Pride expressedWhat is the point of Pride? An unusual topic to pick surely? Well bear with me and hopefully the seasonality  of this particular question will become apparent.

Pride is one of those human conditions that we know when we see it in others and when we experience it ourselves. The picture to the right screams pride to me, yet others see other meaning in the facial expression. In my purely personal and unscientific experiment, responses to the question ‘Describe the feeling within this picture’ have included Pride; in fact it was the most popular response – around 40% of those replying. However, I also received replies such as smug, sanctimonious, disdainful, condescending, sneering, conquering and superior. Interestingly, although it was the strongest reply, less than half of those who answered me associated the image with pride. Perhaps it’s a particularly difficult thing to recognise, or I was dealing with people who had difficulty reading expressions, or it was a poor choice of photograph.

angryAlthough unscientific, I had tried to consider some of those points. The photograph is of a model with the brief of expressing ‘pride’ -one of a range of similar photographs.

The same group had little difficulty in associating the second photograph with anger, rage or fury. In fact 24 out of 25 read the face in that way. So is there something special about pride?

In fact, the more I read and examined this area, the more doubt I uncovered. Some psychologists considered pride to be an emotion in its own right. Others argued it wasn’t an emotion at all, but was a considered response to other behaviours. In any event, pride is an area which has very little in the way of serious academic research and the value it brings to an individual or society seems unsettled.

Pride Model

Emotional Generation Model

Most of the serious models use a model similar to that shown here. It argues that there are complex (hybrid) emotions and more primal (true) emotions. When considering pride, it argues that this follows an appraisal of how a person has responded to a concern and/or stimulus. That stimulus could itself be one of the more basic primal emotions such as fear or rage.

This model could also explain why we find these less complex, more primal feelings more easy to identify in the facial expressions of others.

However, the question of what purpose pride has, what it contributes remains in debate. The usefulness of fear and anger can be easily seen as part of the self preservation instinct, necessary in evolutionary terms for life itself. However, pride seems an almost self-indulgent nive to have. The nearest I could find to any form of credible theory was that it was a pseudo reward mechanism which may have been an early trigger for self-reflection. It may not give anything in itself other than a warm glow, but could reinforce reflective practice and potentially some of the underlying positive behaviours. Hold that thought for a moment!

Of course, in recent years Pride has taken on an altogether different meaning, particularly for the younger, gay or festival generations. In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s a series of event championing equal rights for what was then called the ‘queer’ or homosexual population (there was no community recognised at that point) started to appear in major cities of the UK, most notably, London and Manchester.

Stonewall March

Stonewall March

Initially, these were  organised by Stonewall and they amounted to little more than an organised march with people dressed much as they would be if they were going to the cinema or theatre but with the occasional stonewall banner.

The purpose of the marches at that time was clear, equality in terms of rights, acceptance and integration into the wider community. As the 1980’s matured, the scourge of AIDS rose bringing a double challenge to the emerging gay community. Firstly, the emerging community was decimated by the arrival of HIV. Secondly and more challengingly, the natural fear of such a threatening virus seen as being born of the gay community brought a sense of ‘blame’ to that community further marginalising it in some quarters.

Manchester Mardi Gras 1996

Manchester Mardi Gras 1996

The Stonewall marches adapted as the eighties matured, these became more defiant and in some cases defiance veered towards the confrontational. However, these settled into a more educational and celebratory phase with accompanying name changes in most of the major events.

Manchester re-branded it’s celebrations as Mardi Gras with an increasing number of events emerging across the remainder of the country. Again, during this period the events had a clear purpose based around the battle against HIV/AIDS, the removal of clause 28 (perceived as homophobic legislation) and the promotion of ‘safe sex’. This continued through most of the naughties.

At that point my problems with these type of events started to grow. Arguably, the introduction of combination therapies leading to the effective management of HIV, the growing acceptance of homosexuality as part of mainstream society and the repeal of legislation such as Section 28 has removed the natural causes traditionally supported by such events.

Perhaps sensing this, Mardi-Gras and similar events started to diverge either competing with the growing festival scenes or becoming more of a celebration of an increasingly accepted homosexual lifestyle.  Mardi-Gras (along with most others) followed London by rebranding itself to first ‘Gay Pride’ and the simply ‘Pride’.

However, that acceptance and increased integration into mainstream lifestyle has at least for me sounded the first ringing of the death knell of Pride in its current form. In simple terms, they have lost their purpose and relevance for me.

Increasingly, these events have become more about being seen in gear, walking on the march (for reasons that are unclear to me) and consuming copious amounts of alcohol. They have also moved from the largely free events of the 1970’s to events in their own right often charging between £15 and £30 to gain entry.

Whist I have nothing against walking in the street, wearing gear or copious amounts of alcohol, I can do that in many places and don’t need to pay for the privilege of so doing. If the money raised during these events went to counter some of the modern battles facing the gay community I would have less of an issue. However, typically the collection funds the running costs of the events with just 3-5% going to related charities and good causes.

gmpprideFrom my perspective, the development of Pride events as a commercial event now has very little to do with its original purpose. Now, its much more about bringing in the cash (the cynics might say milking the pink pound).

The worst example I can think of would be Manchester Pride 2014 sad for a city that has contributed so much to equality. In that example, a large area of the city (the gay village) was blocked off with the right to enter, pass and re-pass without hindrance suspended – unless of course you purchased a wrist band grating you access. Residents were granted ‘permits’ to reach their own homes but everyone else was prevented from gaining access.

I would have no issue if this was a private place or related exclusively to venues taking part in the ‘event’. However this wasn’t the case and people were effectively being charged to access public roads as a pedestrian. The actions of the Council in 2014 in relation to the implementation of the road closure have since been found to have been unlawful by the local government ombudsman (details of the issue can be found here). By extension, the security contractors and Greater Manchester Police who enforced the orders found themselves in a difficult position one nobody wanted to repeat this year. How far from the original ambitions of those who first marched.

Loss of Direction?

Loss of Direction?

So, what’s my point? What have I got against Pride? To answer that we need to go back to the purpose of pride in psychological terms. Pride allows us to reflect on concerns and stimulus, assess and feel we have/are making improvements or contributing to their being improved.

Has Pride simply become just another reason to drink until you fall over and be seen in your best leather, rubber or just show off your perfect abs?

The historic educational component is largely gone, the supportive and community aspects have in my view started to go the same way. Are there no  longer any issues for the gay community to address and raise in the public consciousness? I haven’t seen anything, for example, to support those struggling with the emergence of ‘chem sex’ within the gay community. An increasing dependence on chrystal meth and similar chemicals can be life shattering for some and there is precious little support for anyone wanting to give up outside London. Similarly, there is barely any educational or community support visible at any modern pride.

Isis throw men from tall buildings for being gay

Isis throw men from tall buildings for being gay

So is it just the case that the political scene for LGBT communities is now so settled that there is nothing left to fix?

Whilst it may be the case that things have improved incredibly over the past couple of decades in the UK, that is far from true in the rest of the world.

In the most extreme examples, ISIS are executing men by throwing them off multi storey buildings just for being gay. So far in 2015 there have been over 200 documented cases.

In less extreme examples, there are still significant issues of equality to be tackled both within the UK and internationally. These include the failure to recognise same sex partners as next of kin in many jurisdictions, the inability to marry or enter into civil partnerships in countries including Australia and unfair dismissal due to sexual orientation.  These would seem to indicate that the battle isn’t quite yet won. Yet on these points, Pride is typically silent in favour of stalls selling often over-priced  tat.

If the human state of pride is a psychological mechanism allowing reflection and improvement then I hope organisers of the various Pride events might take a lead from that example. Surely we can do better than what has been described as ‘just another piss-up in the park’. For my money until the modern day Pride events offer more than just another booze-up then it’s legitimate to ask exactly what is the point of pride?

The rehabilitation of an ‘artist’ and salvation for Weston ?


Sometimes, the juxtaposition of two elements creates something that is greater than the sum of its parts. It appears to me, this is particularly true when the elements being brought together are unexpected and wouldn’t be something you would naturally think of in partnership. I think I may have spotted just such a marriage today. The problem is that by their nature it’s nearly impossible to spot the difference between an act of genius and a car crash.

‘Weston-super-Mare’, BR poster, 1948-1965.

‘Weston-super-Mare’, BR poster, 1948-1965.

From the 1920’s Weston Super Mare in Somerset developed a name as a traditional seaside resort. As a resort at that time it had a lot going for it, a great pier, easy rail routes from the industrial centres of Birmingham and Manchester and the warmer climate of the west country.

The town even made allowances for it’s rather ‘muddy’ beach (so much so it can rather cruelly be know as Weston-super-mud) by building and promoting a lido. With landladies arguably second only to those of Blackpool and a natural knack for advertising Weston became the west country seaside destination.

Under the banner or ‘Weston Super Mare with air like wine’ the town reached its zenith in the 1950’s and early 1960’s. Although remaining a popular summer destination for many, the town has suffered from the rise of cheap air travel and package holidays to sunnier and hotter locations. Indeed the reliability (or lack of it) of the British summer has perhaps been the biggest factor in the decline of Weston from those Halcion days, not even donkeys on the beach and a revitalised pier being able to fully compete.

As for that lido, unfortunately time has not been kind on what was once one of the jewels in the town’s crown. Gradual decline and disuse has left the building empty and in parts near derelict despite several attempts to revitalise or repurpose the complex into something more useful to the local community.

tropRebranded in the 1970’s and 80’s the Tropicana became something of a political football with several redevelopment schemes failing to get off the ground for a variety of reasons. In anyone’s books it is a rather sad and bleak shadow of its former self.

With changes to local government boundaries, many would argue that Weston has suffered from the continuing rise of Bristol.  With that city’s growth and rise as a regional centre, it is Bristol that has grown into the regional hub for business, entertainment and the arts more generally.

That said, not all Bristolian artists have been universally acclaimed or even that visible. Odd as it seems, there is a fairly strong history of artists acting counter-culturally and shunning the very oxygen you would imagine they seek – publicity.

Eddie Izzard Season Four Premiere Screening Of "Nip/Tuck" - Arrivals Paramount Studios Hollywood, California USA August 25, 2006 Photo by Jeffrey Mayer/ To license this image (10076180), contact WireImage: U.S. +1-212-686-8900 / U.K. +44-207-868-8940 / Australia +61-2-8262-9222 / Germany +49-40-320-05521 / Japan: +81-3-5464-7020 +1 212-686-8901 (fax) (e-mail) (web site)

Eddie Izzard

Stretching back as far as  Pope and George Elliot there have been those artists who avoid the attention of the media of their time.

More recently, despite the initial unlikely nature of this relationship, artists such as Euan Uglow, Francis Davison, Michael Andrews and even Eddie Izzard have exhibited the same behaviours. Some appear to be genuinely averse to the attention whilst others may well be benefiting from their natural ability to manipulate the expected norms of modern marketing.

Perhaps the greatest current exponent of this art is Bristol born Banksy. His initial reticence in the early 1990’s may well have been because his early works were often considered to be little more than vandalism or graffiti. He was certainly not welcomed in many of the locations in which his stencilled art appeared, certainly not in those early years in any event.

One of the significant differences (with all except perhaps George Elliot) is the fact that Banksy has managed to keep his identity more or less secret since that time.Thought to be Bristol born Robin Gunningham or Robin Banks, speculation still abounds as to his true identity, no doubt adding to his cache and popularity.

banksyghazaKnown for satirical and thought provoking images, his work is now known world wide including the curtain being drawn back on paradise painted on the Israeli security wall within the Gaza strip. His artwork now regularly sells for up to £500,000

So, my unexpected juxtaposition could best be explained by the question ‘What happens when you cross Banksy with Weston Super Mare?’

The answer is something unexpected, bleak, thought provoking and subversive but which those lucky enough to have seen it say is an overwhelmingly positive and uplifting (if somewhat challenging) experience.

dismalandDue to open for local audiences tomorrow and to the wider public shortly afterwards Banksy has collaborated with other artists to create Dismaland. Complete with a very familiar type faced sign and morose volunteers welcoming guests to this bleak attraction this ‘bemusement park’ looks like breathing life into Weston over the coming months as it will undoubtedly draw fans from across the country and around the globe.

It will be interesting to see how the notoriously litigious Disney corporation respond to the parody (including ears on the volunteers that look remarkably mouse-like).

So is this just a publicity stunt or is there more to this surreal and ultimate in pop-up art culture.


Death on a bumper car

Taking over the whole of the tired and broken Troicana, Dismaland feeds on the atmosphere of entropy and decline with a mix of humorous and the bizarre, political comment and audience participation.

Although Banksy isn’t the sole artist, his work and that of Damien Hurst dominate the more challenging and provocative pieces. There is the unfortunate unicorn in formaldehyde (a Shetland pony gave it’s life for a piece I could really have done without) however, Hurst’s fragility of love featuring a beach ball hovering over a collection of sharp knives and shards of glass is both imaginative and strangely touching.

In addition to these pieces are works from other artists all with a darkness within their theme but somehow bringing a sense of wonder and tackling some fairly deep and topical issues ranging from immigration to commercialism and environmental issues.

The Princess' Carriage

The Princess’ Carriage

Perhaps the most political and subversive pieces is displayed within a decayed and abandoned castle (again a la Disney). In this, a pumpkin carriage is seen overturned in a tunnel with the body of Cinderella hanging from the carriage window whilst being photographed by the gathering paparazzi.

No explanation or parallels are drawn and none were needed. However, it was clear that the subtext was all too apparent to those viewing it.

This is far from the simple stencils on walls of the 1990’s. As someone who is not usually a fan of modern conceptual art, this collection made me think and respect the thought and effort put into its creation and presentation. Far from a car crash of a marriage, I suspect Weston will once again be the throbbing hub of the west country for the next six months or so.

Ironically, this year’s poor summer and the relative decline of the building is exactly what is needed to showcase this most unusual and imaginative collection.

Those in the town of Weston-Super-Mare can’t speak highly enough of Banksy and his counterparts. A true rehabilitation of those artists who’s work was washed from the walls years before. It’s unclear at this time where the money which will be raised is going and how much of this might find its way back to Weston. I hope this dark and confronting  collection of works brings some brightness and happiness to a town which has had more than it’s share of troubles. For something so initially dark, it is surprisingly uplifting and enjoyable. A strange but productive marriage.

Will long haul aviation be possible after peak oil?


My moa380st recent long haul flight was from London Heathrow to Melbourne. I must admit that with the excitement of the trip, sustainability wasn’t at the forefront of my thoughts as I settled into a business class seat.

With a flying time approaching 24 hours, it had been a conscious effort to upgrade to the pointy end. Thankfully with a combination of frequent-flier points and not thinking about the impact on my bank balance that had been possible.

However, as we increased speed for take off, the size, weight and power of the plane came  into focus as the engine roar became suddenly much louder. I do remember thinking briefly what power the engines must be generating.

Of course modern aircraft fuel is highly refined and a relatively efficient fuel. However, you need plenty of it to get modern passenger jets off the ground. The Airbus A380 is the largest of the beasts with a fuel capacity of over 350,000 litres. It costs around £111,000 to fuel one of these monsters at today’s price (August 2015). With a return flight scheduled for next June, that fact alone helps me understand (to some extent at least) the price of the tickets.

jetengGiven the weight of the aircraft, the passengers, luggage and freight load, distances travelled and available fuel storage, it seems unlikely that there are any meaningful alternatives to jet propulsion. Whilst both electric and solar powered flight is possible, this is largely a theoretical and academic challenge which is unlikely to move into mass transportation any time soon.

However, in a time when oil reserves are being used up at an increasing rate, how will flight be possible without access to the fuel to power these incredibly powerful but thirsty engines. For some years, researchers have been predicting the gradual decline of air travel brought on by diminishing oil reserves.

peakoilOf course, people have been predicting peak oil (the point at which maximum production has been reached and supplies begin to diminish) for many years. We still produce billions of gallons per year and the idea of peak oil remains controversial. However, most commentators agree supply is likely to become more difficult after 2050.

If this is correct and given existing demands on oil for road transport, heating, manufacturing and a thousand other high profile things, it’s hard to see civil aviation competing for increasingly scarce resources. This could make flight the domain of the super rich and simply price people out of the market. What is clear is the status quo is unsustainable based on current fuels.

So, given the requirement to find a fuel which could be used in existing (or slightly modified) engines and have similar weight to power profiles are there any options? A non dissimilar situation may give us some pointers for the future.

ww2oilIn the late  1930’s and 1940’s, it wasn’t peak oil causing the issue, but the combined efforts of the Allied forces. During this period blockades of German ports and supply routes meant a significant drop in fuel for the German war effort. It meant alternatives had to be found if the Luftwaffe was to continue to fly,

Germany’s answer was synthetic aviation and high octane fuels derived from processing coal and lignite. Between 1938 and 1943, synthetic fuel output underwent a respectable growth from 10 million barrels to 36 million. The percentage of synthetic fuels compared to the yield from all sources grew from 22 percent to more than 50 percent by 1943. The total oil supplies available from all sources for the same period rose from 45 million barrels in 1938 to 71 million barrels in 1943

Technology in the 1940’s was certainly embryonic in comparison to synthetic fuel manufacture technology today. This shows that even during the most adverse conditions, synthetic fuel production could provide one mechanism to create the high octane chemicals required by the aviation industry.

Other possibilities include the rise in the production of bio fuels. Boing and Airbus have research projects into  the replacement of current fuels with bio production.  The early results seem to show considerable cost implications for jet propulsion but real possibilities for shorter range turbo-prop aircraft. Alternatively, this could be blended with traditional fuels to ‘stretch’ kerosene as far as is possible.

If bio-fuels are the answer then we better get used to more, shorter low speed trips. My flight to Australia would still be possible but I may find it made up of several shorter legs.

One of the more surprising candidates is being developed separately by General Electrics and LEI. Using a combination of superconductors, the strength and lightness of graphene and lighter aircraft design electric jet propulsion may be viable in the very near future.

eplane6LEI has already successfully demonstrated a superconductor electric engine suitable for a Cessna light aircraft. Although this was only intended to be a proof of concept the results were enough to convince even the most hardened cynic.

On a larger scale, jet airliners designed to carry 120 passengers  powered by electric jet engines are well into the test production stages.

In this example, each wing has the usual single engine replaced with five smaller electric engines. As technologists have faced the inevitability of changing from aviation fuel the advantages of the alternatives also start  to emerge. This aircraft would be significantly quieter and the engines could be powered by a variety of far more sustainable sources.

Longer term, there is a strong candidate in liquid hydrogen. German and Dutch airlines are already powering their groundcrew vehicles with this fuel and both NASA and Boeing have plans to increase research in this area more than any other comparable technology.

lh2 lh2All the major manufacturers have plans to refit their existing fleet and design new craft based around liquid hydrogen fuel.

Although it requires greater capacity in terms of volume compared to traditional fuel it is significantly lighter. For anything over mid range flights the fuel cost would be reduced over current fuels.

Two German and one Dutch airline are working closely with manufacturers to see the first hydrogen powered planes in our skies by 2040. One particularly canny chemist has worked out how to produce hydrogen as a by-product of bio-fuel production. Apart from the potential cost and weight advantages of hydrogen, the big advantage is that the pollution produced by the engines is non-existent. Just water vapour.

With the degree of innovation in this area, I’m confident that my trips to Melbourne are secure.  We have too much of a love affair with long haul flight to return to a period without this freedom. The most recent investors in the hydrogen fuel process are interestingly nothing to do with aviation but are the traditional car manufacturers wishing to learn from this experience.

With peak oil approaching (as it has been for many years) we may very well be at the end of the fossil fuel era and the dawning of the age of Hydrogen.

Memories of Manhatten


It isn’t often that I find myself literally stopping in my tracks. However, a short and powerful animation has done just that. Originally intended for broadcast on Children’s BBC in the UK, I have no hesitation is saying I found it thought provoking, dramatic and very moving. It was on Saturday of the recent weekend when I accidentally flicked to a channel showing the material. Although it was part way through I was so engaged with it that I watched to the end and then found it online to watch from the start.

Little Boy

Little Boy

The last week marked seventy years since the detonation of an atomic bomb over Hiroshima. The innocently named ‘little boy’ was released at around 32.000 feet from the Enola Gay at 08.15 local time.  After falling for just over 40 seconds it’s detonation arguably led to the shortening of World War II and undoubtedly shaping the military geopolitics of the next 50 years.

In the second following detonation 70,000 people were killed by the force of the detonation simply vaporised by the explosive power of the device. Over the next days and weeks a further 100,000 died from the fallout and radiation poisoning.

The ‘little boy’ had an explosive payload of 15 kilotones, that being the equivalent of 15,000 tons of TNT. At the time, this destructive power was simply beyond the comprehension of many hearing of the explosion.

In fact, the second detonation at Nagasaki was larger. The ‘big man’ device was closer to 20 kilotones and given the geography and make up of Nagasaki was considerably more destructive. Knowing this, how can you make an animation detailing the events of that day?  Simply put, by humanising the story, putting the viewpoint of a young girl who found herself on the outskirts of Hiroshima on that fateful morning.

The skill of the animators in sympathetically presenting those events was based on the real life experiences of a now well known Japanese poet. However this powerful example of the impact of such weapons has done little within Japan to silence the growing voices for the re-introduction  of Japan’s capacity to wield such weapons as a nation.

Prime Minister Abe

Prime Minister Abe

Following its defeat at the end of world war II, Japan introduced a greatly revised pacifist constitution. This prevented aggressive armed forces (although it allowed the country to retain a greatly reduced self protection force).

Last year, Prime Ministe Abe reinterpreted aspects of the constitution to broaden the definition of self defence. As a result, Japan could and has now publically stated would come to the support of American forces if attacked by growing Chinese power in the region.

Similarly, weaponry seen as unconstitutional just ten years ago  is now permitted. These include long range anti aircraft and anti missile defensive weapons.

This move had the unforeseen result of bringing traditionalist and nationalist Japanese voices joining in a call for the ultimate self-defence  capability , nuclear weapons.

Whilst current anti-proliferation laws and the political balance of the country is unlikely to see Japan develop these, it might see further deployment of strategic weaponry from allies such as the United States.

Hiroshima building

Hiroshima building

The fact that a nation has a right to defend itself and its people is not in dispute. However, the irony of Japanese protester demanding nuclear weapons outside the shell of the most famous surviving building in Hiroshima seems lost on those taking part.

A fact which may give pause for thought for those calling for this type of rearmament relates to the growth in power of weapons  since 1945.

The ‘little boy’ explosion flattened an area of some ten square miles. Even allowing for the construction methods of Japanese housing at the time this was devastating force which virtually nothing hit by the blast wall was able to withstand.

The ‘standard’ yield on most atomic weapons is no longer the 15 kilotons of the little boy. Most carry an explosive force of 15,000 kilotons. I wonder if those in all countries who call for the ultimate protection of nuclear weapons could look at Hiroshima and imagine something one thousand times as destructive.

I for one hope that in the week in which the events of 70 years ago are remembered, we might all consider the futility of weapons that are now so powerful they could not be used tactically and would ensure joint annihilation. We may not be able to unlearn the knowledge coming out of the Manhatten project, but we can all play a part in preventing further reliance and proliferation.

Are we on the brink of eradicating HIV ?


Don't die of Ignorance

                    Don’t die of Ignorance

Anyone who was in their teens or twenties in the 1980’s in the UK cannot fail to remember the ‘Don’t die of ignorance’ campaign launched when the first cases of HIV/AIDS were diagnosed and making the headlines.

Hard-hitting, uncompromising and frankly frightening, this ad campaign certainly underlined the ‘death sentence’ perception of an HIV diagnosis at that time. Indeed, in many senses, this wasn’t just a perception. In the early to mid 1980’s the likelihood of survival was very low with the toxic AZT being the only line of defence to a virus which ravaged segments of the gay and hemophiliac communities. At that time, the idea of HIV being a manageable let alone a treatable condition was simply fantasy.

Freddie Mercury

         Freddie Mercury

The stigma associated with a diagnosis at that time cannot be understated.Yet, if the condition had any anything at all working in it’s favour it was the high profile names that fell foul of the infection.

The announcement that Rock Hudson, known for his rugged and powerful acting performances was the first I remember having a wider public impact.blo Then, the communal intake of breath as Queen’s lead singer Freddie Mercury bravely appeared in public. The sight of him as a gaunt and sunken figure, a weakened and reduced version of the powerful character we all thought we knew. That struck a chord with so many people at the time. The power and aggression of the HIV/AIDS virus at that time was suddenly seen as something that must be overcome.

Since that time, progress quite simply unimaginable at the time has been made. From dozens of fairly toxic tablets three of four times a day we have now progress to a point where combination therapy means the condition is treated as manageable – much like diabetes. Many people currently living with the virus take just one tablet a day and have a near normal life expectancy experiencing little in the way of side effects.

However, despite this progress, the condition can only be managed, not cured. However, as researchers in different fields combine their results, there is real hope that the prospect of a cure for HIV/AIDS in infected people may be on the horizon.

The first piece of good news comes from the University of Oxford which reports that the natural evolution of the virus is producing gradually weaker strains. As the virus has spread, it has had to evolve to survive. Every so often the virus meets a strong and effective immune system. If it doesn’t evolve it will be destroyed – so it changes. But those mutations typically result in a drop in the ability of the virus to replicate. That in turn makes it less aggressive.

Professor Phillip Goulder and his team at Oxford even believe we may reach a point where the HIV virus becomes virtually harmless to humans in future generations merely by this process of ‘watering down’  by natural mutation.

hiv1The complexity of the infection cycle means that researchers have been able to tackle different stages of the process. One seeks to starve the virus of the building blocks it needs to replicate within a ‘hijacked’ cell.

Researchers at the University of Rochester medical center identified the building blocks needed within the cell to allow the virus to replicate. These building blocks are referred to as deoxynucleoside triphosphates or dNTPs. They also identified that a protein SAMHD1 can break down these dNTP’s – effectively starving the virus of the building blocks it needs to continue replicating itself. Whilst this research is in the early stages it provides a new route to tackle the spread of the virus within the body.

The second line of attack may come with a change to the prescription regime of the most effective combination therapies. At present, treatment is routinely left until the immune system is compromised. However, studies in London based on early intervention and treatment have shown significant variation based on the start point of treatment.

The Spartac study, which involved 366 patients from eight countries around the world, tested the theory. Some patients were given 12 weeks of drugs after being diagnosed, another group had drugs for 48 weeks after diagnosis and a third group were given no drugs until they reached the levels at which treatment would currently be started.

Prof Jonathan Weber, from Imperial College London, said those on the 48-week regime “end up with much higher CD4 cell count and a much lower viral load”. – In simple terms, their immune system remained stronger and the number of copies of  HIV found in the blood was significantly lower.

HIV3The third and most recent development stemmed from findings in the treatment of Lymphoma at the UC Davis school of medicine.

Recent developments in combination therapies mean that there are now very effective ways of tackling the virus when it is travelling in the blood stream. However, the challenge is that much of the virus remains in ‘reservoirs’ within the body (the gut, brain and bones being examples) where the combination therapy is unable to tackle these dormant virus copies.

This research uses medication currently used in the treatment of lymphoma to flush the reservoirs into the blood stream of the host. Whilst this leads to an initial rise in the viral load of the individual, it also means the virus can now be tackled by existing combination therapies. Whilst still in the early stages of clinical trials, this holds out the real prospect of ultimately being able to ‘clear’ the virus from the body.

It is unlikely that any one of these approaches will be successful alone. However, as research from a variety of disciplines start to come together, the possibility of enhanced combination therapies including some or all of these strands becomes far more real.

Although nobody is promising a ‘cure’ for HIV/AIDS the progress made over the past 30 years is staggering. With new avenues such as these becoming viable treatment methods, the next 10 years can truly be said to hold real promise for those living with HIV as well as wider medicine where these approaches may be replicated for unrelated conditions.

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